In progress

PCF:Global Fashion Industry (2018)

WikiCarbon, the free product carbon footprint repository
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Global Fashion Industry (2018)
This is an approximation of global emissions from the fashion industry allocated pro rata to every #GlobalCitizen on a per capita basis.
Source(McKinsey, 2020)
PCF Summary (kg CO2)
Product manufacture69.0
Product distribution16.6
Customer use55.2
End-of-life (EOL)8.3
x gallons motor gasoline32.09 gal
% raw steak (9.0 oz.)3032.97%
% iPhone X (64 GB)436.71%
% round-trip NYC-London (economy)12.28%
% average annual emissions per person4.91%
no parent categories

Description: This is a Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) Assessment for the following product: Average Per Capital Emissions Associated with the Fashion Industry (2018).[1] This page was automatically loaded by Administrators onto WikiCarbon (i.e., created) using data and information compiled in a PCF Load (Excel file) (see: WikiCarbon PCF Load) prepared by the following user accounts on WikiCarbon: AlexanderFrantzen.

[I] General info

  1. Product name: Average Per Capital Emissions Associated with the Fashion Industry (2018)
  2. Product brand name: All activities in the fashion industry globally
  3. Product description: This is not a product, but an assessment of global emissions from the fashion industry on a per capita basis. As such, it reflects an approximation for total annual greenhouse gas emissions associated with the basked of fashion products consumed (bought) by the average #GlobalCitizen on planet Earth. Note: Less than 50% of humanity, i.e., #GlobalCitizens, very likely account for a disproportionately larger fraction of said emissions on a final-consumption basis and, as such, if global emissions from the fashion industry were allocated not pro rata but based on actual per capita consumption, said capita-specific annual emissions figures would vary greatly by country and/or income-bracket.
  4. Primary source(s): McKinsey, 2020: Achim Berg and Karl-Hendrik Magnus are Senior Partners and leaders of McKinsey & Company’s Global Apparel, Fashion & Luxury practice Sara Kappelmark is a partner in the Apparel, Fashion & Luxury practice. Anna Granskog is a Partner, Libbi Lee and Corinne Sawers are Associate Partners and Poorni Polgampola an Engagement Manager in McKinsey & Company’s Global Sustainability Practice. Morten Lehmann is Chief Sustainability Officer at Global Fashion Agenda, where Holly Syrett is Senior Sustainability Manager and Gizem Arici is Sustainability Manager. "Fashion on Climate: How the Fashion Industry Can Urgently Act to Reduce It's Greenhouse Gas Emissions." McKinsey & Company (McKinsey) in partnership with Global Fashion Agenda (GFA), 2020. <>. Accessed electronically: August 27, 2020.[2]
  5. Year(s) of publication(s): 2020[3]

The following may not apply but should be listed if available/applicable:[4]

  1. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Standard(s): This assessment does not refer to nor appear to comply with internationally recognized life cycle assessment (LCA) standards available from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[5]
  2. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Software(s): n/a[6]
  3. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database(s): n/a[7]

[II] Goal and scope

  1. Product type: Final consumer[8]
  2. Unit of analysis: Average basked of fashion and apparel products (allocated pro rata to every global citizen)[9]
  3. Product weight (kg): n/a kg[10]
  4. Intended audience: Individual consumer(s)[11]
  5. Type of inventory: This is an atypical inventory as it blends one-time emissions (e.g., production of a t-shirt) and recurring emissions (e.g., annual use of said t-shirt). Emissions during customer-use ("usage-phase emissions") are "annualized emissions" and not cumulative. Converting annualised emissions to lifecycle emissions would require making assumptions about to how many years clothing is used, and multiplying this number by the annualised emissions figure. As such, this inventory is neither full nor partial. It is unclear how McKinsey prepared the GHG inventory, i.e., the calculations aren't disclosed. Refer to the Primary Source for explanations in endnotes.[12]
  6. Greenhouse gases: Not specified; however, the Primary Source likely includes CO2, CH4 and N2O.[13]
  7. GWP conversion factors: Not specified; however, the Primary Source likely relies on GWP-100 conversion factors from the recent AR5 (IPCC, 2013).[14]

[III] Processes and physical activities

Refer to the Process mapping for more guidance.

General directions:

  • Life cycle stages and processes.[15]
  • Time period (days or months) for each life cycle stage.[16]
  • Land-use change (LUC) impacts.[17]
  • Material and energy inputs and outputs.[18]

Life cycle stages:

Life cycle stage Description of Physical

Process Activity

LUC Impacts[19] Material[20]






Premanufacturing Includes processes: Material production and Yarn preparation. - - - -
Product manufacturing Includes processes: Fabric preparation, Wet processes, and Cut, Make, Trim. - - - -
Product distribution Includes processes: Retail and transport. - - - -
Customer use Product use ("annualised"). - - - -
End-of-life (EOL) End-of-use. - - - -

[IV] Assumptions

  1. Allocations:[23] Full lifecycle, customer-use ("usage-phase") emissions are annualised. Other than this note, few assumptions for allocation are specified in the Primary Source. For the purposes of preparing this Streamlined PCF (here on WikiCarbon), total global greenhouse gas emissions from the fashion industry, as per McKinsey & GFA, are allocated pro rata to the average population of global citizens living on planet Earth in the year 2018, relying on (UN, 2019) World Population Prospects 2019.
  2. Exclusions:[24] Exclusions are not specified.
  3. Assumptions (Scenario):[25] Apart from noting that customer-use ("usage-phase") emissions are annualised, few assumptions associated with preparing this total annual greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the fashion industry are not disclosed. For example, endnote 88 states that: "Apparel [is] assumed to represent ~82% combined apparel and footwear industry emissions based on Quantis: Measuring Fashion Report 2018.

[V] Data

If possible, itemize data using the classification structure below. This can take the form of bullet point notes, a matrix table, and/or a column added process and/or life cycle stage mapping tables in previous sections.

Notes: These are general notes concerning all data sources, as classified below, for both Primary data and Secondary data -- that are used in the Primary source(s).

  1. Sources: Various sources are relied upon, including The Fiber Year Report, 2019; UN Comtrade Database retrievals; Quantis Measuring Fashion Report 2018; etc.[26]
  2. Year(s): For the most part, data appears to be derived from: 2018, 2019, 2020.[27]
  3. Data quality: n/a[28]

Primary data: This refers to measurements and records for either direct emissions data or process activity data -- made by a company (internally) or by another company in the supply chain -- about the specific product's life cycle.[29]

  1. Direct emissions data: None.[30]
  2. Process activity data: None.[31]

Secondary data: This refers to external measurements and records for either process activity data or financial activity data that are not specific specific to the product life cycle but, rather, "represent an average or general measurement of similar processes or materials."[29]

  1. Process activity data: n/a[32]
  2. Financial activity data: n/a[33]

Emission factors: These are conversion factors for the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of activity or financial data. Technically, emission factors are Secondary data, however, they are itemized separately, in this section, for the sake of clarity.[34]

  1. Process activity emission factors: n/a[35]
  2. Financial activity emission factors: n/a[36]

[VI] Final calculation (carbon inventory)

Refer to the Carbon inventory for more guidance.

General directions:

  • Convert all non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measures into CO2-equivalent (CO2e) measures using the following conversion factors. Note that existing PCF/LCA reports, and emission factors, from various databases, may utilize different conversion factors.[37]
  • Prepare final calculation (i.e., the cumulative, total summation) in the table below. This is called the GHG Inventory.

Emissions and (removals) by process:[38]
This table should only include processes; the next table itemizes emissions and (removals) by life cycle stage. Both tables should add up to the same total; unless only partial data is available for one or both tables. Note that: Each life-cycle stage may include one or more processes; and each process falls under, at most, one life cycle stage (never multiple).


(all measures in kgCO2e[39])

Land conversion (LUC)[19] Land preparation


Biogenic[20] Fossil[22] Chemical[22] TOTAL (kgCO2e) % Comments

(if any)

Material production - - - - - 104.9 38.0% N/A.
Yarn preparation - - - - - 22.1 8.0% N/A.
Fabric preparation - - - - - 16.6 6.0% N/A.
Wet processes - - - - - 41.4 15.0% N/A.
Cut, Make, Trim - - - - - 11.0 4.0% N/A.
Retail - - - - - 8.3 3.0% N/A.
Transport - - - - - 8.3 3.0% N/A.
Product use ("annualised") - - - - - 55.2 20.0% N/A.
End-of-use - - - - - 8.3 3.0% N/A.
TOTAL - - - - - 276.0 100.0%

Emissions and (removals) by life cycle stage:[38]
This table only includes life cycle stages (sub-totals). Figures in this table rely on figures from the table above, which itemizes emissions and (removals) by process. A life cycle can include one or more processes; a process belongs in only one life cycle stage. Notes should be provided detailing which life cycle stages each process is mapped to (process to life cycle stage mapping).


(all measures in kgCO2e[40]))

Land conversion (LUC)[19] Land preparation


Biogenic[20] Fossil[22][21] Chemical[22] TOTAL (kgCO2e) %
Premanufacturing - - - - - 126.9 46.0%
Product manufacturing - - - - - 69.0 25.0%
Product distribution - - - - - 16.6 6.0%
Customer use - - - - - 55.2 20.0%
End-of-life (EOL) - - - - - 8.3 3.0%
TOTAL - - - - - 276.0 100.0%

[VII] Live Carbon Inventory Table

The following Live Carbon Inventory Table feeds directly into the PCF Infobox. It duplicates figures from the [VI] Final Inventory (Carbon Inventory). This allows for automatic percentage (%) and multiple (x) comparison relative to benchmark emissions for comparison.

Carbon Inventory (Estimate)
Stagekg CO2e
Product manufacturing69.00
Product distribution16.60
Customer use55.20

[VIII] Miscellaneous

The following concerns editor discussions, as well as information that doesn't fit in sections or sub-sections above.

  • Discussions: The Discussion tab (at the top of this page) can be used to record tasks, notes and have discussion with collaborators. The Corporate discussion tab (also at the top of this page) is where editors on WikiCarbon can and should engage with company representatives -- regarding brand-specific PCFs -- if and when companies collaborate to compile brand-specific Product Carbon Footprint assessments and/or Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) for their products.
  • Additional Notes (if any):

[VIV] Final page preparation

The following are guidelines for completing the Infobox and Identifiers on this page.

  • Infobox: The Infobox is the PCF Summary at the top of this page. This is important as it provides all editors and viewers a snapshot of the Final calculation (carbon inventory). Each PCF assessment (whether Streamlined or Product Standard Compliant, including general and brand-specific products) must have a complete Infobox at the top of the page to satisfy WikiCarbon Classification System guidance and be WC-Compliant. Refer to this Infobox (Guideline).
  • Identifiers: In short, identifiers include: (1) Status and (2) Verification. Rely on Identifiers (Guideline). Identifiers are located at the top of this page, and can be adjusted by pressing the "Status" Template, at the very top of this page, while in Visual editing mode.[42]

[X] Classifiers

Listing additional universal product (general or brand-specific) and industry classification codes makes product carbon footprint (PCF) data potentially more useful to everyone at large, and makes it easier for editors, viewers, and other users to retrieve PCFs and collaborate in compiling.

WC Assessment Identifier (WCS): 200000.1[43]
SASB® - SICS: [44]
SASB® - Sector: [44]
SASB® - Industry: [44]
GICS® - Sector: [45]
GICS® - Industry Group: [45]
GICS® - Industry: [45]
GICS® - Sub-Industry: [45]
GRI - Business Activity: [46]
NAPCS: [47]
CPC (v2.1): [48]
HS: [49]
SCG: [50]
UNSPCS: [51]


  1. Note that this page may not contain all data and information comprising a full PCF or Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) report; and instead may reflect a summary. Refer to the Compilation (Guideline) for general guidance; and if this is a Streamlined assessment, refer to the Streamlined PCF (Guideline) for specific guidance concerning sections on this page. Refer to the progression matrix for more information on general v. brand-specific PCF assessments.
  2. Typically, Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) Assessments on WikiCarbon will be comprised of a PCF Assesment or Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for a single product. Generally, it's good practice to post separate PCF Assessment (pages) on WikiCarbon, one for each PCF/LCA report. However, in some instances, a PCF on WikiCarbon can be compiled or assembled using multiple PCF/LCA reports, to summarize findings therefrom, for example, displaying a range of PCFs for a particular fabric, e.g., cotton or polyester. If multiple primary sources are relied upon, they should be itemized here, separated by (i), (ii), etc. Again, it's good practice to post separate PCF Assessment (pages) on WikiCarbon, one for each PCF/LCA report; as well as listing them together on page. If a PCF/LCA report relies on other sources, e.g., Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data from third-party databases, those sources can and should be listed below in section [V] Data.
  3. This is the year of publication for the Primary source (e.g., 2018, 2019, or 2020). If multiple Primary sources are relied upon, list years separated by semicolons.
  4. If either of these are not available/applicable, indicate either: "No Standard", "No Software", "No Database", or "N/A". Listing the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Standard, LCA Software(s), and Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database(s) in use is relevant if the Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) or LCA reports, i.e., the Primary source(s), utilizes an internationally recognized product life cycle accounting and reporting standard and/or secondary data sources (e.g., emission factors). Nearly all PCF/LCA reports rely on secondary data from LCI databases. Separately, LCA Software can be used to prepare PCF results that don't conform with accounting and reporting standards; but that can/may conform with Streamlined PCFs and/or Streamlined LCAs.
  5. Vernacular: "GHG Protocol", "PAS 2050", "ISO 14067", "ISO 14040/44", "No Standard", or "N/A". For reference: There are three internationally recognized product life cycle [carbon] accounting and reporting standards from (1) The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol, prepared by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD); (2) Publicly Available Specification (PAS), from the British Standards Institute (BSI); and (3) various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Respectively, the relevant Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) accounting and reporting standards are titled as follows: (1) Product Life Cycle Accounting and Reporting Standard by GHG Protocol; (2) PAS 2050:2011 Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services by BSI; and (3) ISO:14067:2018 Greenhouse gases - Carbon footprint of products - Requirements and guidelines for quantification by ISO (note that several PCF/LCA reports and/or papers rely on ISO 14040/44. See Product Life Cycle Accounting and Reporting Standard for more information.
  6. There are several LCA softwares (including SimaPro, GaBi, Umberto, openLCA, eBalance, EIME, Quantis Suite, Team 5, and REGIS). That said, SimaPro and GaBi are the two most widely recognized. For more information refer to this FAQ page from Ecoinvent. Accessed: April 13, 2020.
  7. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) databases include: ecoinvent, UVEK LCI Data, The Evah Pigments Database, LCA Commons (complete), Environmental Footprints, OzLCI2019, idea, GaBi, Agri-footprint, ARVI, soca, EuGeos' 15804-IA, NEEDS, ESU World Food, ELCD,, bioenergiedat, and USLCI. Input/Output databases include: exiobase and PSILCA. Data set libraries indluce ProBas. See Interactive map of LCA databases from Life Cycle Initiative, hosted by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  8. This should be either Final Product or Intermediate Product. Final product: A product intended for one or more individual consumers (e.g., a T-shirt, book or kitchen appliance). Final products are typically sold via business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions; however, final products may also be sold via business-to-business (B2B), consumer-to-business (C2B) or consumer-to-consumer (C2C) transactions (e.g., office supplies, equipment, home-made goods, other services, etc.), the carbon footprint of which may be allocated to the receiving company/consumer, which use said final products to produce/deliver goods and service. In short, distinguishing between a final v. intermediate product relies on Editor discretion. Intermediate product: A product or component, for a company or individual(s), used to assemble and/or manufacture a final product (e.g., wood from a lumber yard sold to a pulp mill, fiber board from a pulp mill sold to a paper mill, paper sold to an individual or company; and/or chips from a semiconductor manufacturer sold to a hardware manufacturer, etc.). Intermediate products are typically sold B2B, but can be sold B2C, C2B or C2C.
  9. Most often, in Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) assessments, this is the functional good or service (the "product") being studied (e.g., a T-shirt, or book). This may be called the functional unit. It's common to measure the unit of analysis (functional unit) in common retail quantities (e.g., six cans of soda; bag of almonds; one ream, i.e., 500 sheets, of paper; or twelve roles of toilet paper, etc.); for some products, the lifespan of use (by the consumer) is a factor of the unit of analysis. For example, using (i) a T-shirt 25x times and then discarding it, (ii) an iPhone for 3.5 years and then recycling it, or (iii) a KeepCup reusable coffee cup for 4 years.
  10. This needs to be the weight (in kilogram) of the final or intermediate product (excluding packaging) for which this assessment is prepared, i.e., the weight (kg) per unit of analysis. The material and energy inputs/outputs associated with packaging can and should be factored in below in the assessment.
  11. Either Individual consumer(s) or Producer. See the previous footnote concerning Product type (Final v. Intermediate). Where a product is consumed by household members or community members (e.g., shared office space), it's sometimes useful to adjust the unit of analysis to reflect each individuals' allocated share. It's easiest to allocate shared emissions pro rata (in equal proportion); however, using the office space example, cubicles typically account for less square footage per person relative to closed offices, so an argument can be made for alternative allocation methods. The method, either way, should be reflected in the (II.1) Unit of analysis, and detailed in section [IV] Assumptions.
  12. The most common example of a partial life cycle assessment is Cradle-to-gate, which includes exclusively the first two stages, i.e., pre-manufacturing and manufacture (also referred to as raw materials and production), and excludes later stages, i.e., product distribution, customers use and end-of-life. A full life cycle assessment (LCA) should include all stages, typically classified as: pre-manufacturing, manufacturing, product distribution, customer use, and end-of-life, which is referred to as Cradle-to-grave. Cradle-to-grave, however, does not necessarily include reuse, refurbishment, or recycling which can take place after/with end-of-life disposal. The GHG Protocol Product Standard, for example, outlines two methods for allocating emissions from recycling, i.e., the closed loop approximation method and the recycled content method, which occur after the end-of-life stage. The goal of WikiCarbon is to compile Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) -- which can also be termed Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs), or just Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) -- that reflect, as closely as possible, the physical reality of emissions directly associated with a product(s) over its full life cycle (i.e., from raw material extraction to end-of-life disposal and/or recycling). As such, where possible, the type of inventory should be: full life cycle -- for, exclusively, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In many instances, due to limited data availability or other feasibility constraints, including resource and/or time costs, only Streamlined Life Cycle Assessments (SLCAs) -- for exclusively GHG emissions -- can, realistically, be prepared at scale.
  13. List all greenhouse gases (GHGs) included in this product carbon footprint (PCF), e.g., CH3 and N2O. PCFs should, where applicable and possible, include the Big Three; and, if available, Other trace gases. That said, CO2 accounts for the largest fraction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, currently ranging from 75-88% depending on the global warming potential (GWP) timeframe. For a list of GHGs, refer to: Greenhouse gas conversion factors.
  14. Global warming potential (GWP) conversion factors. Identify the GWP conversion factors used, specifically: (1) which factors are used, i.e., either Global Warming Potential (GWP) or Global Temperature Potential (GTP) conversion factors; (2) the timeframe or time horizon, i.e., either 20-year, 100-year, or 500-year; and (3) the IPCC publication and year relied upon, i.e., either the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) (IPCC 2013), the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) (IPCC 2007), or the IPCC Second Assessment Report (SAR) (IPCC 1995). Refer to Greenhouse gas conversion factors for more information. Note: Most life cycle assessments rely on GWP100 from either (IPCC 2007) or (IPCC 2013) depending on the year of publication.
  15. A brief description of each life cycle stage, including the starting point, end point, and time period, where applicable. This can be in bullet point or number list format. Preparing stage descriptions in conjunction with preparing the process map (table) is helpful. Processes can and should be explicated in more detail in the table for Process mapping.
  16. Detail the typical inventory time-period for each life cycle stage over the partial or full life cycle for the product, from land-use and raw material extraction ("pre-manufacturing") to end-of-life (EOL).
  17. Detail methods used to estimate land use change impacts, i.e., land conversion or land preparation, if any. Refer to reference note from the table in column, "LUC Impacts."
  18. Itemize the material inputs and outputs associated with each process (e.g., lumber, pulp, bleach, dye, ink, etc.), and the energy inputs and outputs (e.g., coal, oil, diesel, natural gas, etc.).
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 The following notes are based on guidance from the Product Standard by GHG Protocol (WRI/WBCSD). Land-use change (LUC) Impacts: Emissions and removals resulting from either land conversion (between land-uses) or land preparation (for a specific land-use). Note that changing from one land-use type to another (e.g., from forest land to cropland, or grassland to settlement) is typically a one-way event in the short term, i.e., it's a long term decision. As such, the emissions from LUC is typically straight-line amortized over a period of time (20 years as per the Product Standard) in order to allocate one-time emissions from LUC Impacts to 20-year cumulative raw materials and/or products produced therefrom. LUC impacts, as per the Product Standard, include: (1) Land conversion: Biogenic CO2 emissions and removals due to carbon stock change as a result of land conversion within or between land-use categories; and (2) Land preparation: Biogenic and non-biogenic (fossil fuel use) CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions resulting from the preparation of converted land, such as biomass, burning or liming -- in order to prepare converted land for the new use. Carbon stock refers to the aggregate carbon stored in one or more of the following carbon pools: (1) above-ground biomass, (2) dead organic matter, and (3) soil organic matter. Land use categories include: Forest land, Cropland, Grassland, Wetland, Settlement (human), and Other. Biogenic emissions and removals that are not LUC Impact: Biogenic and non-biogenic (fossil fuel use) that are not associated with LUC (i.e., converting between or preparing land for new land-uses), are included in the category for Biogenic emissions and removals and not LUC Impacts. Generally speaking, recurring (e.g., annual or semi-annual) biogenic emissions and removals, including biomass burning and fertilizer application from agricultural and forestry practices, should be recorded as Biogenic (not LUC Impact). SOURCE: The definitions in this Reference note originate from the Product Standard (World Resource Institute and World Business Council on Sustainable Development, 2011).
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Biogenic substances (biomolecules) are produced by living organisms or biological processes, e.g., soil organic matter (SOM), which is composed of soil microbes; ocean plankton (plants of the ocean); trees, plants, grass, pearl, silk, cotton (plant); and coal, oil, and gas (hydrocarbons, aka fossil fuels, i.e., literally, fossilized remains from plants and animals). All carbon standards, however, account for fossil fuel emissions and removals separately from all other biogenic emissions. Biogenic emissions and removals are relevant for products that use materials of biogenic origin, e.g., trees, silk, cotton. Biogenic removals should reflect the carbon physically embedded in the raw material constituting the final product itself, e.g., embedded carbon in the wood comprising a chair, or embedded carbon in the cotton comprising the spun yarn, which is knitted to make fabric used for a T-shirt. Note that embedded emissions may eventually be released back into the atmosphere after end-of-life product disposal, if and when the the product decomposes, releasing (emitting) the embedded carbon into the atmosphere (e.g., decomposing food waste, a wood table or a cotton t-shirt). Food and feed: The PAS 2050 standard (see notes from the Product Standard page) excludes from biogenic sources of emissions and removals: the embedded carbon in food and feed that is physically ingested (consumed and digested); but includes (1) emissions from decomposing food waste (food that is not ingested), (2) biogenic emissions and removals associated with food production that is not part of the final product (i.e., that is not ingested), and (3) emissions from enteric fermentation (i.e., burping by cows and other ruminants, which releases Methane).
  21. 21.0 21.1 Globally, most energy is currently generated by burning fossil fuels (i.e., hydrocarbons: goal, oil, and gas). Generally speaking, energy will take the form of either mechanical energy (work), thermal energy (heat), or electrical energy (electricity). Energy and Power (from David MacKay's Sustainable Energy -- without the hot air), has an excellent synopsis of energy. For for extensive information: The Physics Hypertextbook: Energy and/or Physics classroom: Work, Energy, and Power.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 Nomenclature used on WikiCarbon: The category titled, "Fossil," on WikiCarbon refers to fossil fuel, i.e., hydrocarbon (coal, oil and gas); the category titled, "Chemical," on WikiCarbon refers to all non-biogenic chemical reactions (excluding fossil fuel combustion). WikiCarbon, as outlined in Streamlined PCF guidance and on the WC-Compliant Template, distinguishes the two sources (fossil fuel v. all other non-biogenic chemical reactions) for the sake of clarity. Notes re: terminology: ISO, BSI, and WRI (the Product Standard) use the term, "Non-biogenic," which combines emissions and removals from fossil fuel combustion (a chemical reaction) and all other non-biogenic chemical reactions under the same heading (i.e., "Non-biogenic" emissions and removals). Other chemical reactions: Examples of other chemical reactions that result in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and/or removals are: (i) carbonation of concrete (which sequesters CO2), (ii) emissions from fluorinated gas production, and (iii) emissions from HCFC-22 production and HFC-23 destruction (see: F-gases and refrigerants). Energy: Globally, most energy is currently generated by burning fossil fuels (i.e., hydrocarbons: goal, oil, and gas). Generally speaking, energy will take the form of either mechanical energy (work), thermal energy (heat), or electrical energy (electricity). Energy and Power (from David MacKay's Sustainable Energy -- without the hot air), has an excellent synopsis of energy. For for extensive information: The Physics Hypertextbook: Energy and/or Physics classroom: Work, Energy, and Power.
  23. List allocations, if any, i.e., the methods relied upon to allocate emissions and other measures on a per product basis (e.g., allocation of overhead based on quantity of production over a specific period).
  24. List what direct or indirectly attributable emissions activities, if any, are excluded (refer to Scopes for more detail).
  25. List assumptions relied upon (used) for the life cycle assessment (LCA) summarized in the primary source, and/or the product carbon footprint (PCF) summarized on this PCF page, including assumptions for each life cycle stage profile.
  26. Provide notes on and/or citations for some or all data sources used in the Primary source(s). It should be noted that the Primary source(s) will likely be comprised of multiple Primary and Secondary data sources.
  27. This lists the year(s) that the primary and secondary data -- used in the Primary source(s) -- was measured/recorded. If the Primary source(s) is a Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) or Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) reports, the year(s) that source data was measured/recorded may not be the year that the subsequent PCF/LCA report was prepared. For example, if emission factors are used in a PCF/LCA report, those emission factors likely were prepared based on activity data measured/recorded in earlier years.
  28. Comments on data quality; including: what efforts, if any, can be taken to improve data quality. Refer to the Primary source(s). Note that: Much data likely will be derived using emission factors, as there is currently limited company-level and product-level data -- both of which may be cost-prohibitive for many large and small companies to collect, especially across the entire supply chain(s).
  29. 29.0 29.1 Crown, and Carbon Trust. Guide to PAS 2050: How to assess the carbon footprint of goods and services. BSI 2008; London, UK. ISBN: 978-0-580-64636-2. <>. Accessed: May 30, 2020.
  30. Direct emissions data refers to physical measures of emissions releases, e.g., the direct monitoring/measuring of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an incinerator measured through a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS).
  31. Primary process activity data on physical processes directly associated with the specific (studied) product. This includes the type and quantity of inputs/outputs (e.g., material inputs, product outputs, co-products, waste), energy used (e.g., number of gallons of motor oil burned, other fuels, electricity use), and distribution/transportation (e.g., vehicle type, load capacity, etc.). As stated above, this can be measured and recorded by a company (internally) or by another company in the supply chain (e.g., suppliers, manufacturers, processing facilities, etc.). Activity data can be measured, modeled, or calculated.
  32. Secondary process activity data on physical processes not associated with the specific (studied) product. Activity data can be measured, modeled, or calculated. Secondary data sources include: industry reports, aggregated data from trade associations, peer reviewed literature, scientific papers, Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) databases, use profiles (product category rules), government agencies, and can be prepared by a company itself (e.g., internal average or general measures for similar products and/or activities within the company and/or supply chain).
  33. Financial activity data includes the monetary value of, for example, oil or electricity bought and used in production; and other monetary measures of processes directly or indirectly associated with a product that result in GHG emissions.
  34. Emissions factors are the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of activity or financial data (e.g., kgCO2e per unit of fuel, kgCO2e per $, etc.). They are used in the final calculation to convert activity/financial data into GHG emissions figures by multiplying each itemized activity/financial amount by the appropriate emission factor. Note that emission factors may only cover a single type of GHG (e.g., Carbon dioxide (CO2) per kWh of chemical energy, or CO2 per gallon of fuel); while other emission factors may include multiple GHGs using the common unit, Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). For more on the common unit, see Greenhouse gas conversion factors.
  35. These are the greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of process activity (e.g., kgCO2e per unit of fuel, or kgCO2e per unit of electricity) conversion factors. List sources for emission factors (Emission factors), including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), environmentally extended input-out (EEIO), cradle-to-gate, combustion, upstream fuels and electricity.
  36. These are the greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of financial activity (e.g., kgCO2e per $ revenue, or kgCO2e per $ expense) conversion factors. List sources for emission factors (Emission factors), including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), environmentally extended input-out (EEIO), cradle-to-gate, combustion, upstream fuels and electricity.
  37. Most life cycle assessments rely on 100-year timeframe global warming potential (GWP conversion factors, i.e., GWP100, from either (IPCC 2007) or (IPCC 2013), depending on the year of publication. That said, conversion factors for other time horizons exist (20-year, 100-year, and 500-year), and even GWP100 conversion factors are updated every five years, approximately, with each Assessment Report published by the IPCC. GWP conversion factors will, generally speaking, originate from either the: IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) (IPCC 2013), the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) (IPCC 2007), or the IPCC Second Assessment Report (SAR) (IPCC 1995). Refer to Greenhouse gas conversion factors for more information.
  38. 38.0 38.1
    Notation: Removals are notated using round brackets (parentheses); round brackets are commonly used in financial accounting to indicate (negative) values. In the case of removals, round brackets represent a (decrease) in atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), i.e., GHGs are being removed from the atmosphere (e.g., by photosynthesis, sequestration, carbon capture and storage, etc.). Emissions increase atmospheric GHGs, and therefore do not have brackets. For example, a wood table: In the case of a wood table, the wood has embedded carbon (i.e., biomass carbon stock), which is a biogenic removal; if, at the end-of-life (EOL) life cycle stage, the table is discarded (e.g., in a land-fill), it will decompose, resulting in biogenic emissions (i.e., the embedded carbon is released).The symbol "-" indicates that no emission or removal is associated.
  39. Gram (g) carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). One metric ton (Mt) of CO2e has the same global warming potential (GWP) as one metric ton (Mt) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Refer to the page, Conversion factors, for more information.
  40. Gram (g) carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). One metric ton (Mt) of CO2e has the same global warming potential (GWP) as one metric ton (Mt) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Refer to the page, Conversion factors, for more information.
  41. Any data, notes and/or details that do not fit in the PCF sections (above) -- and that belong on the PCF page (e.g., not the Discussion tabs) -- can be included using subsections within this [VIII] section. Due to the reality of there being hundreds of different product types (e.g., consumed over shorter or longer periods of time, with or without additional energy during use, etc.), and given that multiple editors with different opinions will be collaborating in compiling PCFs on this repository -- undoubtedly, some PCFs will require one ore more section(s) in addition to those in the above template. Adding more data and information to support well-informed and well-sourced PCF calculations is encourage; however, it is critical that the first set of sections be identical across all PCF pages, as the familiar and standardized template structure facilitates: (1) viewing, (2) preparing, and (3) maintaining all PCFs.
  42. Identifiers include: (1) Status and (2) Verification. Status is used to identify whether this PCF is either In progress or Complete; and Verification is used to identify whether this PCF has been Verified by an expert. While there are internationally accepted guidelines for the verification of a life cycle assessment (LCA) and/or product carbon footprint (PCF) assessment, the verification (or not) at the top of this PCF page refers exclusively to the content and editing (compilation) performed by editors on this PCF page (assessment). The verification(s) of a primary source(s), or other source data/information, including a life cycle assessment(s) -- which may be relied upon to compile this PCF page -- does not extend (apply) to content, including any and all final calculations (carbon inventory), on this PCF page (assessment).
  43. This is the WikiCarbon Assessment Identifier (WC-AI), based on the WikiCarbon Classification System (WCS).
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 Using Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB): Sustainable Industry Classification System® (SICS®). This system uses an "impact-focused methodology categorizing companies under a sustainability lens." As of 2018 there were a total of 77 industries (across 11 sectors).
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 The Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS®) was developed by MSCI and S&P Dow Jones Indices to "offer an efficient investment tool to capture the breadth, depth and evolution of industry sectors" (MSCI). There were 11 Sectors, 24 Industry Groups, 69 Industries, and 158 Sub-Industries, as of April 5th, 2020.
  46. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) groups companies by business (industry) activity, of which there are 52 GRI: Sustainability Topics for Sectors (2013). A reliable source for learning more about sector, industry group, industry, and sub-industry classifications -- is the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS®) by MSCI Inc.
  47. North American Product Classification System (NAPCS). Type: Product classification. Organized: By principle use of goods and services; and how they are used in relation to each other.
  48. United Nations Central Product Classification (CPC), v2.1. Type: Product classification. Organized: By country or industry of origin.
  49. United Nations Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding Systems (HS). Type: Product classification. Organized: By product type.
  50. Standard Classification of Goods (SCG). Type: Product classification. Organized: By component material.
  51. Taxonomy standard: United Nations Standard Products and Services Code (UNSPCS). Type: Products and services classification. Organized: By product type.