Index:Energy Sources

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Energy source
Product Sub-Category Life cycle gram CO2e/kWh, Median

(exclusively electric energy)[1]

Type of energy generated WCS-ID
Coal[2] 820[3] Heat (thermal) & Electric. -
Oil[2] n/a Heat (thermal) & Electric. -
Natural Gas[2] 490[4] Heat (thermal) & Electric. -
Biomass (Cofiring/Dedicated) 740/230 Heat (thermal) & Electric. 90
Solar PV (Utility)[5] 48 Electric. 30
Solar PV (Rooftop)[5] 41 Heat (thermal) & Electric. 35
Geothermal 38 Heat (thermal) (predominantly). 40
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) 27 Electric. 38
Hydropower 24 Electric (predominantly) 50
Nuclear Electricity 12 Electric. 60
Wave Power n/a Electric. 70
Wind (Offshore) 12 Electric. 80
Wind (Onshore) 11 Electric. 85
Ocean (Tidal) Pre-commercial. Electric. 75
CCS -- Coal (Oxyfuel) Pre-commercial Heat (thermal) & Electric. 12
CCS -- Coal (PC)[3] Pre-commercial Heat (thermal) & Electric. 14
CCS -- Coal (IGCC)[6] Pre-commercial Heat (thermal) & Electric. 16
CCS -- Gas (Combined Cycle) Pre-commercial Heat (thermal) & Electric. 18
Bioenergy n/a Heat (thermal) & Electric. 92
Biofuel n/a Heat (thermal) & Electric. 94
Ethanol n/a Heat (thermal) & Electric. 96

Select Wikipedia pages

Related: Emission factors for energy sources (Resource).

  • Energy [1]
  • Hydrocarbon [2] (Fossil fuel [3])
  • Energy technology [4]
  • Renewable energy [5]
  • Low-carbon power [6]
  • Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of energy sources [7]


  1. All figures originate from (IPCC, 2014) unless otherwise notes. See: Table A.III.2. Source: Schlömer S., T. Bruckner, L. Fulton, E. Hertwich, A. McKinnon, D. Perczyk, J. Roy, R. Schaeffer, R. Sims, P. Smith, and R. Wiser, 2014: Annex III: Technology-specific cost and performance parameters. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savoleainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Fossilized carbon (and some hydrogen). In short, most of human-caused (aka anthropogenic) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions result when humans burn stuff (especially hydrocarbons) to make heat, work or electricity.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Pulverized Coal (PC).
  4. Combined Cycle.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Note: This can eventually account for various classifications/types energy generating facilities (e.g., solar photo-voltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP)); and within these larger categories/types of energy generation technology, there could be brand-specific products (equipment) produced by various vendors (e.g., Jinko Solar, JA Solar,Trina Solar, Sunrun, and Vivint Solar).
  6. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC).


This category has the following 22 subcategories, out of 22 total.