Master: Product Categories.
|Freshwater||Provisioning||For drinking, irrigation, and cooling.||8|
|Food||Provisioning||Fish, seafood, edible algae, game, livestock, crops, vegetables, fruit, and other.||-|
|Genetic Resources||Provisioning||For crop-improvement, and medicinal purposes.||10|
|Medicinal Resources||Provisioning||Biochemical products, models, and test-organisms.||15|
|Ornamental Resources||Provisioning||Artisan work, décorative plants, pet animals, and fashion.||20|
|Raw Materials||Provisioning||Fiber, timber, fuel wood, fodder, and fertilizer.||-|
|Air Quality Regulation||Regulating||Capturing (fine)dust, chemicals, etc.||30|
|Carbon Regulation||Regulating||Carbon cycling, and long term storage of greenhouse gases in ecosystem, i.e., sequestering/capturing carbon in biomass and soil organic matter (carbon stocks).||32|
|Climate Regulation||Regulating||Managing local climate components, including wind, precipitation, temperature, and radiation from ecosystem.||34|
|Moderating Extreme Events||Regulating||Storm protection, and flood prevention.||38|
|Nutrient Regulation||Regulating||Capacity of ecosystem to recycle nutrients, e.g., Nitrogen (N), and Phosphorous (P).||40|
|Pest & Disease Control||Regulating||Seed dispersal, and pest and disease control.||42|
|Pollinating||Regulating||Bees, birds, bats, moths, flies, wind, non-flying animals -- "all contribute to the dispersal of seeds and the reproduction" of plants.||44|
|Soil Fertility||Regulating||Maintenance of soil fertility, including soil formation, capturing carbon in soil organic matter.||46|
|Water Purification||Regulatin||Water purification, e.g., from sediments, pesticides, disease-causing microbes and pathogens.||48|
|Water Flow Regulation||Regulating||Groundwater recharge, natural drainage, irrigation, and drought prevention.||50|
|Waste Regulation||Regulating||Human waste absorption by ecosystems.||52|
|Migratory Species||Habitat||Maintaining life cycles of migratory species, including nursery services.||60|
|Genetic Diversity||Habitat||Maintaining genetic diversity (biodiversity), especially in gene pool protection.||65|
|Aesthetic||Cultural Service||Visual qualities of landscape/ecosystem that influence human well-being, and the need for artistic expression (art, music, literature).||70|
|Opportunities||Cultural Service||Outdoor activities (recreation and tourism) relating to the local environment or landscape.||72|
|Heritage||Cultural Service||This can be considered a combination of "Cultural heritage and cultural diversity" (historically important). and "Natural heritage and natural diversity" (beyond human benefits).||74|
|Spiritual||Cultural Service||Spiritual/emotional values that people attached to local environments or landscapes.||76|
|Information||Cultural Service||Environmental education based on ecosystem/landscape ("Knowledge System").||78|
Ecosystem Service: Water in New York City
Water is naturally purified as it flows through some natural ecosystems, particularly wetlands. For example, New York City "designed and implemented the largest water conservation program in American history, permanently reducing its per capita water use by close to 20% and, at the cost of roughly $500 million dollars, saving the $2 to $5 billion dollars it would have cost to construct new water supply works," i.e., water treatment facilities, which would cost $250 million annually to operate. At the beginning of the 21st Century, the Catskill-Delaware watershed system west of the Hudson River, covering an area of about "2,000 square (830,000 hectares), nearly the size of Delaware," supplied 90% of the New York City's water.
|Lakes & Rivers||6,713||83|
|Woodland & Shrubland||9,766||92|
|Grass & Rangeland||23,883||93|
- Groot, Rudolf de; Fisher, Brendan; Christie, Mike; Aronson, James; Braat; Leon; Gowdy, John, Haines-Young, Roy; Maltby, Edward; Neuville, Aude, Polansky, Stephen; Pertela, Roeimeiry; Ring, Irene. [Reviewers/Editors: Blignaut, James; Brondizio, Eduardo; Costanza, Robert; Jax, Kurt; Kadekodi, Gopal, K.; May, Peter H.; McNeely, Jeffrey; Shmelev, Stanislav; and Kadekodi, Gopal K.]. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: The Ecological and Economics Foundations. Chapter 1: Integrating the ecological and economics dimensions in biodiversity and ecosystem service valuation. TEEB, March 2010. <http://www.teebweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/D0-Chapter-1-Integrating-the-ecological-and-economic-dimensions-in-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-service-valuation.pdf>. Accessed: April 15, 2020.
- Krüger, Simone; Wege, Meike; and Kruse, Marion. "Ecosystem services." Coastal Wiki, online wiki page. <http://www.coastalwiki.org/wiki/Ecosystem_services>. Last edited: July 23, 2019, at 21:50. Accessed: April 16, 2020.
- Favors, Paul. "How Does Water Get Cleaned?" Sciencing. Leaf Group Media. Published electronically: November 22, 2019. <https://sciencing.com/water-cleaned-5158828.html>. Accessed: April 15, 2020.
- Appleton, Albert F. "How New York City Used an Ecosystem Services Strategy Carried out Through an Urban-Rural Partnership to Preserve the Pristine Quality of Its Drinking Water and Save Billions of Dollars and What Lessons It Teaches about Using Ecosystem Services." Convention on Biological Diversity. New York City, November 2002.<https://www.cbd.int/financial/pes/usa-pesnewyork.pdf>. Accessed: April 15, 2020.
- Various sources; in the year 2005 unless otherwise noted. Data from: Table 2: Classification of main biomes in TEEB and remaining surface area (year 2005), p. 16.
- Subcategory within Forests (figures for the year 2000).
This category has the following 23 subcategories, out of 23 total.
- ► Aesthetic (Ecosystem Service) (empty)
- ► Air Quality Regulation (empty)
- ► Carbon Regulation (empty)
- ► Erosion Regulation (empty)
- ► Freshwater (empty)
- ► Genetic Diversity (Maintaining) (empty)
- ► Genetic Resources (empty)
- ► Heritage (empty)
- ► Information (Ecosystem Service) (empty)
- ► Inspiration (Ecosystem Service) (empty)
- ► Medicinal Resources (empty)
- ► Migratory Species (empty)
- ► Moderating Extreme Events (empty)
- ► Nutrient Regulation (empty)
- ► Opportunities (Ecosystem Service) (empty)
- ► Ornamental Resources (empty)
- ► Pest & Disease Control (empty)
- ► Pollinating (empty)
- ► Soil Fertility (empty)
- ► Spiritual (Ecosystem Service) (empty)
- ► Waste Regulation (empty)
- ► Water Flow Regulation (empty)
- ► Water Purification (empty)